Digital Marketing Glossary

ad A marketing communications message conveyed to the consumer.
ad click A click on an ad impression served in the period being measured.
ad impression arrival A user arriving at a site who has been exposed to an ad served on behalf of that site.
ad impression An instance of a consumer being exposed to an online ad.
ad network A system that aggregates ad inventory from publishers and operators to efficiently match the inventory with advertiser demand. Examples include Google Search Network (which includes Google Search and other search sites) and Google Display Network (which includes a collection of websites termed display partners that have partnered with Google, as well as YouTube and specific Google properties that display Google AdWords ads). Ads can appear beside or above search results for keywords that an advertiser chooses. See also network.
ad space The area within a mobile app or mobile website dedicated to displaying ads.
ad unique user A unique device (e.g., a computer, PDA, or mobile phone) that has made a request for an ad impression served in the period being measured.
ad unit An advertising vehicle (e.g., a mobile banner) that includes creative assets inside a mobile ad space.
advertiser An organization that wants to get its message to the right audience, efficiently and effectively.
alt text A description of a graphic in a website.
analytics The technology and measurement systems used to understand what is working in a digital marketing campaign and what is not based on data collected during the campaign.
analytics tool A software and web application that can help indicate whether activity being undertaken by a business is having an impact on its goals. See also insights tool.
app monetization Making money from a mobile app through advertising, app download promotion, or other methods.
app An abbreviation for application. An app is typically a small, specialized program that is downloaded onto a mobile device. Apps can be downloaded from an app store, which is a centralized repository of mobile applications. App stores include Apple’s App Store, Android Marketplace, Blackberry World, and Google’s Play Store.
average position The position at which an ad appears on a search results page (the page that a search engine returns with results relevant to search terms entered by a user).
average visit duration The average duration of a session.
banner ad A mobile ad unit that employs simple creative assets and hyperlinks.
blog A website with regular entries of commentary, descriptions of events, and other embedded multimedia content such as graphics, videos, and presentations.
bounce rate The percentage of single-page visits (i.e., visits in which a user left a site from the entry page).
campaign and ad groups Advertising on social media platforms is generally organized into campaigns and ad groups. A business will typically start with one campaign, which has its own budget and targeting preferences, and then add more campaigns as it expands its advertising.
canvas application An application that is not loaded up in the context of, or visually connected with, a Facebook business page. Instead, the application is consumed elsewhere on Facebook (e.g., in an app directory).
channel For the purposes of this book, a channel (or platform) is a term used to describe an individual social network. For example, Facebook is a platform or channel on which businesses can connect with fans via a business page. See also platform.
click To select something by clicking on it. For example, a customer may see a business’s ad and click on it to learn more or to do business with that company.
CTR An abbreviation for click-through rate. CTR is the number of clicks a business’s ad receives divided by the number of times its ad is shown (impressions).
click-to-call A service within an ad that enables a mobile user to initiate a mobile phone call by clicking within a mobile ad.
completed download A file (typically audio or video) transfer, especially from the Internet to a user’s device, in which the percentage of the file transferred is greater than 95 percent. The user downloads the file for use offline.
conversion Activities carried out by a user that fulfills the intended purpose of the webpage; for example, downloads, filling in forms, purchases, contacts, and newsletter subscriptions.
conversion tracking A form of tracking that gives advertisers insight into how consumers are interacting with their brands throughout the marketing funnel. Advertisers do this by defining traceable events on mobile websites or within apps to assess consumer engagement or the impact of direct-response campaigns.
cookie A text file placed on a web user’s hard drive by a website to remember data about the website’s user.
CPC An abbreviation for cost per click. Under a CPC pricing arrangement, advertisers pay only when a user clicks on their ads.
CPM An abbreviation for cost per mille or cost per thousand. Under a CPM pricing arrangement, advertisers pay for every 1,000 impressions of their ads.
CPA mobile campaign A cost-per-acquisition campaign. A CPA mobile campaign involves an advertising model under which the advertiser pays for each specified action linked to the advertisement; in a CPA campaign, the specified action is typically registration for an online application.
CPD mobile campaign A cost-per-download campaign. A CPD mobile campaign involves an advertising model under which the advertiser pays for each specified action linked to the advertisement; in a CPD campaign, the specified action is typically the downloading of an application or other file.
digital display advertising A form of digital marketing that uses display ads appearing on webpages as a means of communicating relevant commercial messages to a specific audience based on the profile of its members.
direct marketing A channel-agnostic form of advertising that allows businesses and nonprofit organizations to communicate directly with customers via advertising techniques such as mobile messaging, email, interactive consumer websites, online display ads, fliers, catalog distribution, promotional letters, and outdoor advertising.
email marketing A form of permission-based direct marketing, which uses electronic mail as a means of communicating relevant commercial messages to a specific audience based on the profile of its members.
entry page The first page viewed by a website visitor.
exit page The last page viewed by a website visitor.
filter A rule that limits or shapes the results that are returned from an analytics database when an information query is submitted to it.
Flash impressions The total number of requests made for pages that include Flash-based content by users of that site in the period being measured.
followers Nonmutual connections to which data and updates are ascribed.
forum A website that allows the exchange of ideas and other information among users; usually it is monitored by a moderator.
friends Users social networks who are mutually connected and who typically exchange data and updates.
funnels The pathway visitors follow on a website towards a conversion point.
geofencing A technology that allows an advertiser to select a geographic point using latitude and longitude information and thereby create a virtual fence around a given radius of that point. For example, an advertiser could select a geographic point representing the location of a bank branch in order to deliver a specific ad to anyone who comes within a 200-meter radius. Ads delivered through geofencing typically yield higher conversions and better ROI for advertisers.
geographical IP analysis A way of establishing the percentage of users by country for a given metric, such as unique users.
hashtag A clickable keyword that sums up the content of a tweet or status update. A hashtag is a dominant feature of both Twitter and Instagram.
HTML An abbreviation for hypertext markup language, which is the set of commands used by web browsers to interpret and display page content to users.
HTML5 An emerging standard markup language for presenting and structuring information on the web, including the mobile web. Most modern mobile and desktop browsers support HTML5.
impression An ad being displayed on its associated platform.
in-app ad An ad that appears in a mobile app. Formats include standard banners, video, and rich-media ads.
inbound link Inbound links from related pages are the source of trust and page rank. Also called in-link and incoming link.
indexed page A page on a site that has been indexed.
insights tool A software and web application that can help indicate whether activity being undertaken by a business is having an impact on its goals. See also analytics tool.
instant message A message sent between two connections in real time through a social media network or email platform. Facebook, Google +, Skype, and WhatsApp all support instant messaging.
interstitial ad A mobile ad unit that appears between two views on a mobile website or mobile app. The word interstitial derives from interstice, which means a small space between things, especially when part of a series of uniform spaces and parts (think of a picket fence, which has interstitial spaces between slats).
inventory Available advertising space on all mobile channels, including video, in-app, SMS, audio, and mobile web.
keyword A search term or phrase. The keywords that advertisers choose are those that cause an ad to appear when entered by users. See also key phrase.
keyword density The percentage of words on a webpage that are keywords.
keyword research The process an advertiser uses to determine which keywords are appropriate for targeting.
keyword spam Inappropriately high keyword density. Also called keyword stuffing.
key phrase A search phrase. The keywords that advertisers choose are those that cause an ad to appear when entered by users. See also keyword.
landing page The page that users land on when they click on a link in a search engine result page.
link building The process of actively cultivating incoming links to a site.
link popularity A measure of the popularity of a site based upon the number and quality of sites that link to it.
listening The act of monitoring keywords, topics, individuals, and groups for the purpose of either engagement or research.
location-based advertising A mobile ad unit being delivered to mobile users based on specific geographic coordinates (e.g., latitude/longitude, DMA, etc.).
metatag A statement in the HTML that makes up a webpage that provides important information about the page’s content. The information provided is used by search engines to index a site.
mobile ad server A scalable, high-performance system made up of hardware and software that reliably delivers mobile ad units across all mobile channels.
mobile marketing Marketing using mobile devices in order to disseminate promotional or advertising messages to targeted customers through ubiquitous wireless networks.
MRAID ad An acronym for mobile rich media ad interface definitions, which is a specification written by the Interactive Advertising Bureau (IAB).
natural search results Search engine results that are not sponsored or paid for.
NFC An abbreviation for near field communication, a set of standards for smartphones and other mobile devices that allows them to communicate over short distances (typically less than 4 centimeters, or 1.75 inches).
network A system that aggregates ad inventory from publishers and operators to efficiently match the inventory with advertiser demand. Examples include Google Search Network (which includes Google Search and other search sites) and Google Display Network (which includes a collection of websites termed display partners that have partnered with Google, as well as YouTube and specific Google properties that display Google AdWords ads). Ads can appear beside or above search results for keywords that an advertiser chooses. See also ad network.
nofollow A command found in either the head section of a webpage or within individual link code that instructs robots either not to follow any links on the page or not to follow a specific link.
page application An application that is loaded as part of a Facebook business page to provide more functionality to the page. Page applications include competitions, inquiry forms, storefronts, embedded websites, and more. Page applications sit underneath the cover photo.
page impression A request for a page of a site’s content made by a user of that site; advertisers are charged per period being measured.
page views The total number of pages viewed. Repeated views of a single page are counted.
pages per visit The average number of pages viewed during a visit to a site. Repeated views of a single page are counted.
paid search Search engine results that are sponsored or paid for in some way.
percentage of new visits The percentage of visits to a site that came from people who had never visited a site before.
permission-based marketing Marketing efforts in which recipients of the marketing have opted in or given their permission to the marketer to send them information.
plan of action A clear road map for carrying out all the tactics necessary for your email strategy. It specifies the staff, time frame, and budget or other resources that are required for each tactic. The plan coordinates these elements in chronological order where necessary.
platform For the purposes of this book, a platform (or channel) is a term used to describe an individual social network. For example, Facebook is a platform or channel on which businesses can connect with fans via a business page. See also channel.
quality score A measure of relevance applied to an ad, keyword, or webpage.
real-time bidding Technology that allows advertisers to bid on each ad impression as it is served. Serving is based on behavioral targeting via cookies. Advertisers buy an audience, not a placement. Ad placements are auctioned to the marketplace and the highest bidder’s ad is shown.
reciprocal link A link allowing two sites to link to each other.
remarketing A system that allows an advertiser to continue to show ads to people who have visited a mobile website.
remnant inventory Advertising space that a publisher or operator is unable to sell directly through its sales force. It is typically sold at a discounted price through an intermediary.
rich media A broad range of interactive and engaging ad formats, including expandable banners and embedded audio and video.
robots.txt A file in the root directory of a website used to restrict and control the behavior of search engine spiders.
scheduling The act of prescheduling your activity on a social media channel. Actions on Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn can be scheduled in advance in order to save time.
search engine marketing Advertising on a search engine in order to drive traffic to a website. Advertisers pay only when a user clicks on its ad.
Segmentation Distinguishing among different groups of subscribers based on what is known (e.g., demographics, age, or gender) or what can be learned about them (e.g., interests and preferences).
SEO An abbreviation for search engine optimization, or the process of improving the visibility of a website or a webpage in a search engine’s natural, or unpaid (organic), search results.
site map A page or structured group of pages on a website that link to every page accessible to users.
smartphone A mobile phone built on a mobile computing platform that has more advanced computing and connectivity capabilities than a feature phone. Advanced capabilities or elements can include portable media players, low-end compact digital cameras, pocket video camera, and GPS navigation units.
SMS An abbreviation for short message service. The term is generally used to describe text messages sent to a mobile device. The original SMS specification limited messages to 160 characters in length. If multimedia elements are associated with an SMS message, it’s referred to as an MMS.
social bookmark A form of social media in which users’ bookmarks are aggregated for public access.
social media A catchall term used to describe the tools and technologies that facilitate social interaction over the Internet.
social media marketing The process of gaining traffic or attention through engagement on social media sites.
social network A web-based platform that allows users to construct a personal or professional profile from which they can share news and data and connect and communicate with other users.
spider A specialized bot (web robot) used by search engines to find and add web pages to their indexes. Also know as web crawler.
strategy The general approach businesses take to achieve objectives (for example, increasing widget sales through sales calls, a direct mail campaign, and sales incentives).
tactics The specific actions, decisions, and resources required to implement predefined strategies.
targeting The act of channeling marketing efforts and resources to specific market segments defined by demographic, contextual, and behavioral traits that have the highest payoff potential.
text link A plain HTML link that does not include graphic or special code such as Flash or Java script.
tweet A message sent from Twitter, a microblogging service that enables users to send and read text-based messages of up to 140 characters.
unique user A unique device (e.g., a computer or mobile phone) making requests for site content in the period being measured.
unique user duration The average length of all visits (of more than one page impression) per unique user made in the period being measured.
unique visitors The number of unduplicated (counted only once) visitors to a website over the course of a specified time period.
URL An abbreviation for uniform resource locator; also know as a web address.
video interstitial An interstitial mobile ad unit that displays a video between views within a mobile app or between pages within a mobile website.
visit The total number of times that a user (a device) has engaged in a single burst of activity with less than 30 minutes between requests for content. A new visit occurs when the gap between requests for content is at least 30 minutes.

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